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Master Hormones Management Institute.: Encyclopedia

List of available Encyclopedias in Master Hormones Management Institute.:


· Hormone
Hormone
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Hormone" is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter.
A hormone (from Greek horman - "to set in motion") is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. All multicellular organisms produce hormones (including plants - see article phytohormone).

Hormones

Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various endocrine glands and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.

The best-known animal (and human) hormones are those produced by endocrine glands of vertebrate animals, but hormones are produced by nearly every organ system and tissue type in a human or animal body. Hormone molecules are secreted (released) directly into the bloodstream; however, some hormones, called ectohormones, are secreted to the outside environment. They move by circulation or diffusion to their target cells, which may be nearby cells (paracrine action) in the same tissue or cells of a distant organ of the body. The function of hormones is to serve as a signal to the target cells; the action of hormones is determined by the pattern of secretion and the signal transduction of the receiving tissue.

Hormone actions vary widely, but can include stimulation or inhibition of growth, induction or suppression of apoptosis (programmed cell death), activation or inhibition of the immune system, regulating metabolism and preparation for a new activity (e.g., fighting, fleeing, mating) or phase of life (e.g., puberty, caring for offspring, menopause). In many cases, one hormone may regulate the production and release of other hormones. Many of the responses to hormone signals can be described as serving to regulate metabolic activity of an organ or tissue. Hormones also control the reproductive cycle of virtually all multicellular organisms.

History

The concept of internal secretion developed in the 19th century; Claude Bernard described it in 1855, but did not specifically address the possibility of secretions of one organ acting as messengers to others. Still, various endocrine conditions were recognised and even treated adequately (e.g., hypothyroidism with extract of thyroid glands).

The major breakthrough was the identification of secretin, the hormone secreted by the duodenum that stimulates pancreatic secretions, by Ernest Starling and William Bayliss in 1902. Previously, the process had been considered (e.g., by Ivan Pavlov) to be regulated by the nervous system. Starling and Bayliss demonstrated that injecting duodenal extract into dogs rapidly increased pancreatic secretions, raising the possibility of a chemical messenger.

Starling is also credited with introducing the term hormone, having coined it in a 1905 lecture. Later reports indicate it was suggested to him by the Cambridge physiologist William B. Hardy (Henderson 2005).

The remainder of the 20th century saw all the major hormones discovered, as well as the cloning of the relevant genes and the identification of the many interlocking feedback mechanisms that characterise the endocrine system.

Physiology of hormones

Most cells are capable of producing one or more, sometimes many, molecules which signal other cells to alter their growth, function, or metabolism. The classical endocrine glands and their hormone products are specialized to serve regulation on the overall organism level, but can often be used in other ways or only on the tissue level.

The rate of production of a hormone is often regulated by a homeostatic control system, generally by negative feedback. Homeostatic regulation of hormones depends, apart from production, on the metabolism and excretion of hormones.

Hormone secretion can be stimulated and inhibited by:

Other hormones (stimulating- or releasing-hormones)
Plasma concentrations of ions or nutrients, as well as binding globulins
Neurons and mental activity
Environmental changes, e.g., of light or temperature
One special group of hormones is trophic hormones that stimulate the hormone production of other endocrine glands. For example: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) causes growth and increased activity of another endocrine gland - the thyroid - hence increasing output of thyroid hormones.

A recently-identified class of hormones is that of the "Hunger Hormones" - ghrelin, orexin and PYY 3-36 - and "Satiety hormones" - e.g., leptin, obestatin.

Types of hormones

Vertebrate hormones fall into four chemical classes:

Amine-derived hormones are derivatives of the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan. Examples are catecholamines and thyroxine.
Peptide hormones consist of chains of amino acids. Examples of small peptide hormones are TRH and vasopressin. Peptides composed of scores or hundreds of amino acids are referred to as proteins. Examples of protein hormones include insulin and growth hormone.
Steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol. The adrenal cortex and the gonads are primary sources. Examples of steroid hormones are testosterone and cortisol. Sterol hormones such as calcitriol are a homologous system.
Lipid and phospholipid hormones are derived from lipids such as linoleic acid and phospholipids such as arachidonic acid. The main class is the eicosanoids, which includes the widely-studied prostaglandins.

Pharmacology

Many hormones are used as medication. The most commonly-prescribed hormones are estrogens and progestagens (in the contraceptive pill and as HRT), thyroxine (as levothyroxine, for hypothyroidism) and steroids (for autoimmune diseases and several respiratory disorders). Insulin is used by many diabetics. Local preparations for use in otolaryngology often contain pharmacologic equivalents of adrenaline, while steroid and vitamin D creams are used extensively in dermatological practice.

A "pharmacologic dose" of a hormone is a medical usage referring to an amount of a hormone far greater than naturally occurs in a healthy body. The effects of pharmacologic doses of hormones may be different from responses to naturally-occurring amounts and may be therapeutically useful. An example is the ability of pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoid to suppress inflammation.

Important human hormones

Spelling is not uniform for many hormones. Current North American and international usage is estrogen, gonadotropin, while British usage retains the Greek diphthong in oestrogen and the unvoiced aspirant h in gonadotrophin






· Living It Up
From septuagenarian mountaineers to nonagenarian CEOs, Japan''s greatest generation refuses to quit
BY BRYAN WALSH | TOKYO

Alpine climber Yuichiro Miura knows something about rapid descent?in 1970 he became the first person ever to ski Mount Everest, hurtling more than a mile down the peak''s icy flank in less than two minutes, and barely surviving. But handling the downhill slope of his own life proved trickier. Miura retired from climbing at age 60, deciding he was too old to haul himself up mountains anymore, but after five lazy years of Japanese beer and Korean barbecue, he had an epiphany: "I was only talking about my past, not my future. I wanted to challenge my dreams again." Miura decided that it was time to retire from retirement, and what better way to reverse his downhill slide than to go back to the top of Everest? Friends thought he was nuts, but in 2003, after five years of training, Miura?then 70?became the oldest person ever to reach the roof of the world. The remarkably buff septuagenarian is now planning another Everest ascent in 2008 at age 75. "When you''re getting older, you think about the things you can''t do and all the reasons," he explains. "But if I have to die in a hospital, I might as well die on Everest."



Nearly one out of five Japanese?close to 25 million people?are over 65, a statistic that inspires endless fretting and political debate over social stagnation, overburdened pension plans and inadequate health care. But being one of the world''s grayest nations, with a median age of 42.6 years and rising, doesn''t mean Japan is turning into a vast nursing home. Led by spirited adventurers like Miura, aging Japanese are refusing the rocking chair and choosing to remain contributing members of society long after they''ve qualified for senior discounts. Although the mandatory retirement age at most companies in Japan is about 60, the International Labor Organization says that 71% of Japanese men between 60 and 64 are still working, compared with just 17% of Frenchmen in the same age group. Many of those who aren''t drawing a paycheck remain active as volunteers for charitable causes. "You have to keep taking on challenges," says May Ushiyama, who at 94 still runs the Hollywood Beauty Salon in Tokyo, which she helped start three-quarters of a century ago. "If you lose that, it''s the end of you as a human being."

For mountaineer Miura, every day brings a fresh challenge. In between planning trips to the top of Everest, he operates a high-tech alpine training center in Tokyo and works out daily, walking nearly everywhere with more than 20 kg of weight strapped to his back and ankles?even if he''s coming home from a drinking party in Ginza. "It''s good exercise, and I get sober," he says. Miura''s enthusiasm for vigorous activity isn''t rare among Japanese, who have the longest life spans in the world. Seniors there regularly break records. In 2002, Tamae Watanabe became the oldest woman to scale Everest, at 63, and 71-year-old Minoru Saito recently became the oldest person to sail solo around the world without stopping. "I thought my life after 70 was finished," says Saito, as weathered as a tugboat and as trim as a battleship. "But I could still keep doing things my way, with complete freedom." During his 244-day voyage, the modern-day Ulysses scared off a pirate with a flare gun and subsisted on rations, the occasional flying fish, blood-pressure tablets and rainwater. "It was no problem," he says. "Better than Tokyo city water."

CNN.com: Top Headlines

Then there''s 95-year-old Kozo Haraguchi, who in August broke the 100-m-dash record for 95- to 99-year-olds with a time of 21.69 seconds?0.35 seconds faster than the record he''d set just two months earlier. A former craftsman of paper doors, Haraguchi didn''t take up running until the age of 65, which still left him 30 years to prepare for his record-breaking sprint. Haraguchi, who also holds the record for 90- to 94-year-olds, says he hopes his run will inspire fellow seniors to unleash their energy. "There are a lot of people who are capable of doing what I did," he says. "It''s such a waste to have the elderly do nothing."

Indeed, the more Japan ages as a society, the more the country needs its seniors to remain active?and not just as entries in the Guinness World Records. With the country''s low fertility rate (1.28 births per woman) and its 5.2 million baby-boomer workers due to reach retirement age beginning in 2007, there won''t be enough young people to replace retirees in the labor force, let alone support armies of idle pensioners. Salarymen who reached mandatory retirement age used to be dismissed as "industrial waste," but aging Japan will find itself increasingly dependent on its elderly to maintain productivity. "How seniors will be able to contribute to society may change the direction of Japan," says Shigeyoshi Yoshida, the executive director of the Japan Aging Research Center. "We''ll need these people in the coming years."

Fortunately, Japanese senior citizens are ready and eager to work overtime. A 2001 government report found that 72% of Japanese believed the ideal retirement age was about 65 or 70. In contrast, Americans, Germans and Swedes most often cited 60 to 65 as preferred ages to call it quits. "People think work has a value, that a job gives you important self-identification," says Atsushi Seike, an economist at Tokyo''s Keio University, who studies the aging issue. Seike believes that the work ethic among the elderly stems from the fact that retirement is a relatively new phenomenon for Japan. Seniors watched their own parents and grandparents work until their bodies gave out. "Many retirees, especially the older ones, haven''t ac*****ulated the experience of how to enjoy leisure," he adds.

Mitsuo Utsumi wanted to combine leisure and work in his retirement years, and farm living was the formula he found. After 30 years at Roche, the salaryman and his wife Setsuko moved back to Kasegawa City in central Japan three years ago to build their own farm, where they grow figs. "This was my dream," says 58-year-old Utsumi, happily sweltering inside one of his two greenhouses. "I wanted to establish a way to live when I retired, not just survive off a pension." As retirements go, it''s not that retiring?Utsumi often puts in full days that start at 5 a.m.?and the farm only brings in half their pre-retirement income. "As long as I can make a living, it''s fine," he says. "It''s still better than putting the money in the bank."

Retirees who aren''t self-employed like Utsumi can struggle to find decent work?most companies still prefer to hire younger people, because they generally cost less under Japan''s rigid, seniority-based salary structure. But the sheer demand for workers is encouraging companies to be more flexible. Top temping company Adeco plans to double its number of registered workers aged 50 and older by 2008. Employment agency Pasona is forming a Japanese version of the American Association of Retired Persons?not to lobby for prescription drug plans, but to help retiree job seekers find work.

Even if they aren''t punching the clock, however, many Japanese seniors find alternative ways to contribute. Salaryman Masamichi Hagiwara wasn''t ready to become a "window-sitter" when he reached his company''s mandatory retirement age of 57. "I was still able to work every day," says Hagiwara, who spent 30 years developing better feed for fish farming. So he enlisted with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), which sent him for a two-year stint to teach fish farming in the mountains of Honduras. When that was finished, he re-upped for a tour in Malaysia and then Egypt. "I thought it would be good if I could use my experience and work for someone else," says the dapper 67-year-old. "It''s a different culture, with different stakes. I felt a kind of enjoyment I couldn''t get from regular work." There are thousands of other Japanese like Hagiwara, and more coming every year. JICA has seen a sharp increase in seniors volunteering to work abroad over the past decade.

The elderly represent Japan''s greatest generation, responsible for lifting the country from the postwar ashes and building the world''s second biggest economy?and they''re not done yet, as May Ushiyama shows. The bright-eyed, thoroughly perfumed 94-year-old?who spent several years after the war working in Hollywood, and has the black and white photos with Grace Kelly and Debbie Reynolds to prove it?grew her beauty salon from a small family company to an upscale operation that now occupies several floors in Tokyo''s tony Roppongi Hills. She has no intention of retiring. "If you live long, with intensity, you see all kinds of interesting things," Ushiyama says. "It''s stupid to die before you''re 80." She lets out a throaty laugh, quivering with vitality. "I lived longer than Bob Hope!"

From the Oct. 17, 2005 issue of TIME Asia Magazine

· Pregnenolone - Master Hormone for Women ...and Men!
"Of all the hormones in the body, the precursor hormone, pregnenolone, may be the most important for health and longevity."
D. Gary Young

As the parent hormone from which all other vital steroid hormones are made, pregnenolone is being studied for its effects on health, longevity, and emotional well-being.
This reprint from the "Essential Edge" magazine, December, 2000 below, presents important information about pregnenolone:


Pregnenolone - Master Hormone for Women ...and Men! The booklet by D. Gary Young, Pregnenolone: A Radical New Approach to Health, Longevity, and Emotional Well-Being,elicited cheers when it was announced; within two hours, the booklet was sold out. (Available through Essential Science Publishing: 800 336-6308).

The booklet contains a compilation of exciting research on this little-know hormone precursor, pregnenolone. Here are some of the highlights:

Pregnenolone is made from cholesterol in the body. In turn, it can be synthesized into a number of hormones - estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, DHEA, aldosterone, cortisol, etc. It is, in fact, the master hormone from which all the steroid hormones are derived.

But why have most people not heard about pregnenolone and its amazing benefits? One reason has to do with drug companies and profits. Pregnenolone research in the early 1940s was very promising and showed that pregnenolone is effective in relieving arthritis pain, reducing PMS and menopausal symptoms, fighting stress and fatigue, improving memory, and lifting mood. But just as this research was being printed in medical journals, the discovery of synthetic cortisone was announced.

Cortisone Produces Side-Effects

Cortisone showed powerful and immediate effectiveness against arthritis. Drug companies could patent their laboratory version of cortisone and then make a huge profit. Pregnenolone, however, is a natural substance and is not patentable. Because synthetic cortisone was so fast-acting and offered great profit potential, pregnenolone research was basically abandoned.

It was not discovered until later that cortisone had terrifying side effects (immune system suppression and osteoporosis being the two most devastating). Yet pregnenolone has been shown to be virtually free of side effects. A man in one pregnenolone study did develop a temporary rash; while in another study on memory, a participant reported the "side effect" of decreased symptoms of arthritis!

The beneficial effects of pregnenolone on arthritis and other bone, joint, and muscle diseases are well do*****ented. In two studies on ankylosing spondylitis-an inflamitory disease of the joints that causes back pain and stiffening-patients showed marked improvement when treated with pregnenolone.1

Neurobiologist Dr. Eugene Roberts studied the arthritis research from the 1940s and 1950s and said,

"Treatment with PREG (pregnenolone) can be maintained indefinitely without apparent harmful effects and is much less expensive than with ACTH or cortisone or with other anti-inflammatory steroids."2

Lack of Cholesterol Hurts Pregnenolone Levels

Now, scientists and researchers are again looking at the value of pregnenolone. The research that D. Gary Young found establishes how pregnenolone declines in the body more than 60 percent between the ages of 35 and 75. Along with this natural bodily decline, our bodies have had to deal with a decrease in the building block of pregnenolone - cholesterol. "Low cholesterol" or "no cholesterol" has been pounded into the heads of health-conscious consumers. While the cholesterol link to heart disease is under question today, cholesterol-lowering drugs are causing hormone imbalance. Without cholesterol, there is no pregnenolone, which means the body cannot create the hormones it needs.

The lack of cholesterol (and thus pregnenolone) in our diets may be the cause of many cases of depression. Dr. William Regelson writes that,

"A recent study conducted by the National Institutes of Mental Health showed that people with clinical depression have lower than normal amounts of pregnenolone in their cerebral spinal fluid (the fluid that bathes the brain)."3

Spinal cord injuries may be minimized with pregnenolone according to a number of rat studies. Dr. Eugene Roberts would like to see a pregnenolone cream placed in first aid kits for use on the spine following earthquakes or accidents. 4

Pregnenolone is Help For Menopause

Menopause is a dreaded ordeal for the millions of women who choose not to use estrogen replacement therapy because of a four to eight tines higher chance of uterine cancer. The pharmaceutical companies developed ''hormone replacement therapy," which combines synthetic progesterone with conjugated equine estrogen. The majority of female consumers of this therapy are probably unaware that the estrogen they are taking is not natural to the human body and comes from a pregnant mare''s urine (PMU). Dr. John R. Lee notes that 52 percent of the estrogens in this concoction are the horse estrogens equilin and equilenin, which are not natural to humans. 5

Raindrop Technique and Pregnenolone Combined

Synthetic estrogens and progesterones "plug" the body''s receptor sites. "All of your prescription drugs are based on petrochemicals and these chemicals plug receptor sites, creating even a greater imbalance, which suppresses and compromises immune function," states D. Gary Young He explained the value of the Raindrop Technique where certain oils are dropped along the spine:

"Along the spine happens to be one of the largest ac*****ulations of receptor nerve sites, and that''s why Raindrop Technique works so specifically. When the oils get in there and can start stimulating nerve transmission # that''s very, very important. When you combine the oils with pregnenolone, then the oils carry the pregnenolone into the cell structure to start that cell''s rejuvenation. It is win, win, win, and balance, balance, balance."

Doesn''t it make more sense to use a natural substance in hormone replacement therapy? The best thing about pregnenolone is that is it is completely natural. The human body, the true "master chemist," transforms pregnenolone into the hormones the body is lacking. Whether its estrogen, progesterone or testosterone, using pregnenolone, the wisdom of the body makes what is needed most.

For Men, Too

Men are also susceptible to the age-related loss of pregnenolone in the body. They needn''t fear that pregnenolone might be turned into a female hormone. Research on memory by Rahmawhati Sih, Ph.D., showed that after older men and women were given pregnenolone, the memory tests given three hours later showed gender variation. The women rated higher in verbal recall, while men improved in visual spatial tasks that required three-dimensional thinking. Dr. William Regelson reviewed this research in his book, The Superhormone Promise: Nature''s Antidote to Aging and wrote that Dr. Sih''s "results suggest that pregnenolone is being broken down differently in men and women; that is, it appears to have a testosterone-like effect in men and an estrogen-like effect in women."6

What''s even better, is that pregnenolone does not function like synthetic hormones, which can cause debilitating side effects. Instead, it has hormone-balancing effects throughout the body as well as other powerful anti-inflammatory effects.

A rising tide of clinical research is just beginning to show the powerful therapeutic benefits of natural pregnenolone. Benefits that can reverse decline, balance hormones, and increase longevity. All in a completely natural substance that is non-toxic and virtually without side effects!

You can rest assured that pregnenolone is well tolerated and its safety has been well do*****ented. William Regelson, M. D., and Carol Colman stated in their book, The Super-Hormone Promise: Nature''s Antidote to Aging, Pocket Books, 1996, "We know that pregnenolone is safe, well tolerated, and causes no know side effects..."

*Reprinted from Essential Edge Magazine, Fall, 2000

· A Guru's Guide.At 94, He Knows How to Live
BY BRYAN WALSH | TOKYO
Monday, Oct. 10, 2005

Dr. Shigeaki Hinohara was en route to a medical conference in 1970 when his flight was hijacked. For four days he and 130 other passengers onboard lived under the threat of death, as the communist-inspired terrorists stalked the aisles, wielding samurai swords and explosives, demanding to be taken to North Korea. "I expected to die," says Hinohara, now 94 years old. But the hijackers eventually agreed to release all of the passengers in Seoul, before taking the plane to North Korea. For Hinohara, those four days changed everything. "I believed I was privileged to live," he says, "so my life must be dedicated to other people."
Hinohara decided to devote much of the rest of his working days?35 years and counting?to helping elderly Japanese learn to make the most of their sunset years. He formed the New Elder Citizens Group to inspire seniors, and in 2001 published an advice book, How to Live Well. (His publishers convinced him to change the title from the somewhat less commercially appealing How to Die Well.) The book became a surprise hit, selling more than 1.2 million copies and solidifying Hinohara''s status as Japan''s guru of healthy aging. His seductively simple message: "If you keep working, if you keep learning something new, you''ll never get old."

CNN.com: Top Headlines
That''s a prescription the nonagenarian doctor?and part-time poet, novelist and composer?has clearly followed himself. He first joined the staff of St. Luke''s International Hospital in Tokyo in 1941 and stayed on full-time until 1998. He served as president for the last 24 years of his career, which included running the hospital''s response to the Aum Shinrikyo sarin attacks in 1995, at 83. When it comes to aging well, Hinohara is less concerned with the specifics of diet and exercise?though he personally restricts himself to 1,300 calories a day, sleeps little and avoids water?than with promoting the right mental attitude. Japanese people already know how to live a long time, he says, pointing to the country''s 25,000 centenarians. What they need to learn is how to stay productive and engaged after they''ve moved into the third phase of life. "After 75, you can still have potential," he says. "You need to have the freedom to explore that. You need to start something new, something you''ve never tried before."
Hinohara sees old age as a time when it''s finally possible to cultivate an individuality that has too often been sacrificed for the sake of work. His own popularity shows just how resonant that message is among Japanese?his second advice book also hit the best-seller list, and he receives scores of fan letters every day from readers around the country. Still going strong, Hinohara says he has more books in the works, and he continues to lecture on aging around the world. But he''s beginning to consider making a few concessions to approaching geezerhood. "When I get to 95, I think I''ll take up golf," he says. "I''ll finally have the spare time."


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